4. 2. 5. Institutional Infrastructure and Gestell | 4. 2. Theory of Knowledge E-ship in Universities | 4 Cross Case Analysis (Peter F.

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Drucker, 1985,p. 28). 4. 2. 5. Institutional Infrastructure and Gestell . First, the power- or political-structures of the institutions in question are reviewed and to a certain degree set in relation. Then several complementary spatial and contextual arrangements are looked at, while in the last section the important aspect of resources (i. e. the forms of various types of capital) are discussed for the cases investigated. The aspects of the institutions described in this section are seen to be as instrumental to implementing the goals defined at the mindset level.

As such they are structure in the sociological sense or what Heidegger called . Gestell – a German word that means ‘skeleton’, frame, shelf and in the variation ‘Untergestell’ chassis and infrastructure – is used by Heidegger to describe the phenomenon of modern technology as that which “captures all what is extant and makes it available through a stock to be put in circulation” (Ciborra & Hanseth, 1998, p16).

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    Applied to universities, Gestell in this sense means all physical and technological infrastructure [i] necessary to fulfil the universities three missions.
    Hereby it is important to point out the function or the phenomenon of the gestell, which can be distorted and is not always what it seems.
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    Using the example of the telephone Heidegger writes “machines created by technology can only shorten distances, but at the same time do not give access to proximity and farness”, rather he says they deliver undifferentiated availability (Heidegger, 1994 as quoted in Ciborra 1998).
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    Later at a conference in Munich he elaborated on the real potential that technology has.
    “The essence of what technology can do for human causes is to reveal. The revealing that rules in modern technology is a challenging… Such challenging happens in that the energy concealed in nature is unlocked, what is unlocked is transformed, what is transformed is stored up, what is stored up is in turn distributed, and what is distributed is switched about ever anew.
    Unlocking, transforming, storing, distributing, and switching about are ways of revealing… the revealing reveals to itself its own manifold interlocking paths, through regulating their course.
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    ” (Heidegger, 1978). Heidegger did most likely not have information technology in mind but was rather thinking of production chains such as the one leading from trees to paper, to newspapers.
    Nevertheless, when we take his notion of the phenomenon of technology being revealing to information and communication technology we end up in a scenario where technology is used to reveal (unlock, transform, store, distribute, and switching about) the informational essence of the institution.
    And as Ciborra points out, Heidegger defines gestell as the reunion of the organising process, which “overcomes in a felicitous way the dichotomy between the ‘structural’, i.

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    e. static, aspects of infrastructure and their dynamics” (Ciborra & Hanseth, 1998, p.
    19). It is in that way that gestell is used here. 4. 2. 5. 1. Formal Governance Structure It is necessary to elaborate on both terms ‘governance’ and ‘structure’ in order to reach a clear understanding of what is described under this attractor.
    Governance refers to acts and processes of governing and is meant to describe the organisation of power in the entity.
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    Structure refers to an understanding that it is only the blueprint, the theoretic setting created by the policies, laws, and the otherwise institutionalized practices as well as the role descriptions of the individuals and mandates of the institutions.
    Giddens explains "Structures are necessarily (logically) properties of systems or collectivities , and are characterized by the 'absence of a subject'”(Giddens, 1979, p.
    66). The LSE is specialised in the study of the architecture and practice of social institutions and as such it comes as no surprise that it has applied its expertise to design a sophisticated governance structure that is defined and capable of dealing with all levels and all subject areas (see chapter 3 LSE section, 3.